Hypericum canariense Biology...
From April to June, H. canariense produces showy terminal clusters of orange-yellow flowers. The flowers are approximately 1.5 cm across, with five sepals, five petals, three stigmas (sometimes four), and numerous anthers. The dry, capsule fruits mature and dehisce from July through August, releasing hundreds of tiny seeds (1 mm in length) with no obvious adaptations for dispersal. Plants may take as little as one year to grow from seed to flowering adult.
This species can both self-pollinate and outcross, in addition to spreading via vegetative reproduction. Production of seeds via apomixis (without pollen) does not appear to be possible (see Matzk et al. 2003). Approximately 80% of seeds will germinate given light and continuous moisture, though this variable from site to site and year to year (K. Dlugosch, pers obs).
There does not appear to be published information about the toxicity of this species. K. Dlugosch and collaborator S. Crockett (Karl-Franzens University, Austria) are currently investigating its chemical content and defensive properties.
Hypericin has been isolated from H. canariense in its native range (Mederos-Molina 2002), however it appears to occur in low concentrations relative to H. perforatum, or not at all in some of our greenhouse-reared plants (K. Dlugosch, J. Stewart, S. Crockett, unpubl data).
Bramwell, D. and Z. Bramwell (1984). Wildflowers of the Canary Islands. Stanley Thornes Ltd., Cheltenham.
Hickman, J.C. (1996). The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley.
Jupp, D., D. Briese, et al. (1997). St. John's Wort: Hypericum perforatum L.: Integrated control andmanagement. Plant Protection Quarterly 12(2): 51-108.
Matzk, F., K. Hammer and I. Schubert. (2003). Coevolution of apomixis and genome size within the genus Hypericum. Sexual Plant Reproduction 16: 52-58.
Mederos-Molina, S. (2003). Micropropagation of Hypericum canariense L. for the production of Hypericin. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry 51: 95-117.
Robson, N. (1968). Guttiferales. 109. Guttiferae (Clustaceae). Flora Europaea. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Schaeffer, H. (1963). Plants of the Canary Islands. Buchhandlung F. Kutscher, Ratzeburg.
See also the Calflora database
This page last updated: October 2014
This page is maintained by Katrina Dlugosch, University of Arizona.